The color-enhancer will give it that "wet look" with a bit of a sheen (but not shiny) and a more saturated, darker color.
It will also help guard against staining, which the marble table will be much more susceptible to in its current rough state vs. polished marble which is less porous and absorbent.
Care of Outdoor Marble in Cold Climates
For outdoor marble in a cold and wet climate, you have the additional consideration of freeze and thaw cycles.
For marble tables and countertops, this is typically not a major problem as moisture inside the stone is able to evaporate from all sides.
You may consider applying a sealer to the top surface only of a table or countertop (allowing the bottom surface to breath well) to keep rainwater standing on the surface from absorbing, which will eliminate the major cause of cracking, etc.
Or cover the table / countertop during winter months.
Generally, sealing is only necessary when an absorbent stone will be consistently exposed to staining foods, drinks, products.
You will read/hear that "all natural stone should be sealed always" ... usually from a sealer company.
It's not necessarily bad advice, it's just not entirely true. Sometimes sealing is completely unnecessary and some stones just can't be sealed.
For tile laid on the ground or walls in wet areas like outdoor patios, pool decks, any exterior walls, (showers and baths too) sealing is not typically recommended because it's possible that the sealer may not allow the marble to breathe well enough and water will get trapped in the stone causing it to break down and fall apart over time. Or crack during freezing temperatures.
Sealer technology is getting better about letting the marble breath, but considering the risk of staining is so small in most wet environments, why risk it.
Outside, even if you risk some stains on tables or countertops from parties, bbq's, etc., weather (rain and sun) effectively wash out and bleach out stains pretty quick and relative to an indoor kitchen the exposure/stain risk is still much smaller.
So, again why bother or risk interfering with the stone's natural ability to handle the elements.
That's the thinking. It isn't necessarily a hard and fast rule. It's more a matter of assessing risk vs. reward considering the time and cost to apply.
Now, white marble can yellow when constantly exposed to water.
The reason is that white marble often has iron deposits within it. The iron gets exposed to water and rusts. The rusty water leaches through the marble to the surface causing it to yellow.
Sealing marble may help prevent this, but outdoors water can come up from under the stone as well, so you'd want to seal all sides of the tile.
Or better, go with a travertine or granite (which doesn't contain the iron deposits).
Sealing exterior patio and wall tile can be beneficial in some cases where efflorescence (minerals carried via groundwater through the tiles creating a powdery film on the tile) is occurring.
But generally speaking... it's best to leave marble and other natural stone unsealed outdoors. This is particularly true for ground and wall tile. For tables and countertops sealing will help prevent stains (and possibly freeze damage) without any real detriment to the stone.
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